Jumat, 16 Januari 2009

MATERI INGGRIS

CONDITIONAL SENTENCE

 

A.    SUMMARY

 

There are 3 types of Conditional Sentences :

 

TYPE

IF CLAUSE

MAIN CLAUSE

I

V-1/s/es

do     +  not  +  V-1

does  +  not  +  V-1

will/shall + V-1

II

V-2 / were

did    +  not  +  V-1

would/should + V-1

III

had   +  V-3

would/ should + have + V-3

 

Type I (Future Possible Condition) :

e.g. :  If she invites me, I will go to her party.

= Should she invite me, I will go to her party.

 

Type II (Present Unreal Condition) :

e.g. : She doesn’t invite me so I don’t go to her party.

à If she invited me, I would go to her party.

= Were she to invite me, I would go to her party.

 

       Another example :

      He is very selfish so he doesn’t have many friends.

à If he were not very selfish, he would have many friends.

= Were he not very selfish, he would have many friends.

 

Type III (Past Unreal Condition) :

e.g. : She didn’t invite me so I didn’t go to her party.

à If she had invited me, I would have gone to her party.

= Had she  invited me, I would go to her party.

 

Note on “OTHERWISE”

 

Type I      :   If you don’t study hard, you will not pass the exam.

You must study hard otherwise you will not pass the exam.

 

(Fact) You study hard so you pass the exam.

Type II     :  If you didn’t study hard, you would not pass the exam.

You always study hard otherwise you would not pass the exam

 

(Fact) You studied hard so you passed the exam.

Type III    :   If you hadn’t studied hard, you would not have passed the exam.

You studied hard otherwise you would not have passed the exam.

 

Note on “UNLESS” à jika subjek tidak/ kecuali jika

 

Unless = if ….. not

If he does not get sick, he will certainly join us in the game.

= Unless he gets sick, he will certainly join us in the game.

 

 

 

B.         Choose the right answer by crossing a, b, c, d or e.

 

1.         If Bob …. with us, he would have had a good time     

a.     would come                 d. came

b.    would have come         e. comes

c.     had come                    

                                               b. is                                    e. were

2.         If it …. so late, we could have coffee

a.     wasn’t                            d. not be

b.    isn’t                               e. hadn’t been

c.     weren’t                                                                         correct tense.

 

3.         After the way she treated, if I …. in your place

I wouldn’t return the call.  

a.     be                                  d. were

b.     wanted                          e. had been

c.      was                               

                                                   

4.         If I …. the flue I would have gone with you.

a.     hadn’t                     d. wouldn’t have had                          

c.      didn’t have            

 

5.         If the cab …. late, you will miss your flight.

a.     arrives                            d. had arrived

b.    arrived                           e. were arriving               

c.     arriving                         

 

6.         If children are healthy, they …. to walk about

eighteen months old.

a.     would learn             d. would have learned

b.    learn                       e. will learn

c.     will have learned

                                                                                         

7.         According to some historians, if Napoleon

had not  invaded Russia, he would have

conquered the rest of Europe. It means that …

a.     Russia was under Napoleon’s rule.

b.    Napoleon became the king of the whole

Europe.                         

c.     Napoleon conquered Russia.

d.    Russia was not conquered by Napoleon

e.     Napoleon occupied Russia.

                                                 

8.         Football team don’t play in the Super Bowl

Championship …. either the National or the                      

a.     unless they win         d. but to have won

b.    but they win              e. unless they won

c.     unless they will win

                                                                                          

9.         If teaching …. more, fewer teachers would leave

the profession.

a.     pays                               d. had paid

b.    is paying                        e. would pay

c.     paid                              

 

10.      If it …. more humid in the dessert of the

Southwest, the hot temperatures would be

unbearable.                     

a.     be                                d. had been

b.    is                                 e. were

c.     was

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.         Put the verbs in the parentheses into the correct tense.

 

1.         She (be) successful if she had not been so lazy.

2.         I wouldn’t have known the truth if she (not tell) me.

3.         If you had asked me, I (help) you

4.         If the government had given immediate help the people in the area (not suffer) from the dengue.

5.         She will catch the train if she (leave) earlier.

6.         The police (find) the revolver if they opened the bag.

7.         If you (wait) five minutes more you will see me.

8.         Mother (buy) the dress if it were cheaper.

9.         She (be) ill if she eats all those mangoes.

10.      He (see) her if he came to the meeting.

 

D.        Find the facts the following conditional sentences.

 

1.         If I had heaps of money I would drink champagne with every meal.

2.         If I had had a map I would not have got lost.

3.         The job is much worse than I expected.

4.         Your notes are almost illegible, why don’t you type them? If you typed them, they would be easier to read.

5.         If he didn’t smoke so much, he might get rid of his cough.

 

E.         Rewrite these sentences using if constructions.

 

1.         I don’t have the right change so we can’t get the tickets from the machine.

2.         I live near my office so I don’t spend much time traveling to work.

3.         They asked him to leave the dining-room because he wasn’t wearing a shirt.

4.         It took us a long time to find his home because the streets were not clearly marked.

5.         He didn’t get to the top of his profession, perhaps because his wife didn’t encourage him.

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

 

Task 1

Notice and read Yulia’s experience.

 

Yulia was late for school yesterday. She was late because she missed the bus. She had almost reached the bus stop when she saw the bus. She started to run so that she might catch the bust. Unfortunately, she did not catch it though she had run very fast. Yulia missed the bus so she had to walk to school. She would not have been late for school if she caught the bus.

 

Task 2

Answer the following questions about Yulia.

 

1.     The paragraph above tells us about ….

2.     Did the bus arrive before or after the moment Yulia was in the bus stop ?

3.     Why did Yulia run ?

4.     Why did Yulia not catch the bus ?

5.     Is it the only bus passing Yulia’s school ?

How do you know ?

 

 

 

Task 3

This sentence is taken from paragraph above !

 

She did not catch it though she had run very fast.

 

1.     How many clauses are there in the sentence ?

2.     What are they ?

3.     What word join the clauses ?

4.     Does the word “though” introduce reason, time, contrast or something else ?

5.     What is the function of though she had run very fast in the sentence ?

6.     Can the words : so, when, where, before, after, while, etc join the two clauses ?

7.     What does each of those word introduce ?

 

SUMMARY

The adverb clause can function as adverb of :

 

1.     Time                             : after, before, when, whenever, as, as soon as, as long as, until, till, while, since.

2.     Place                            : where, wherever

3.     Manner                        : as, as if, as though

4.     Cause/reason                 : because, as, since

5.     Purpose/result               : so, so that, in order that

6.     Concession/contrast       : though, although, even though, while, whereas

7.     Condition                     : if, unless, as long as, on condition that, provided that

Task 4                                                                                        Task 5

Fill in the blanks with suitable conjunction.

Join these sentences with suitable subordinate conjunction.

 

1.         …. Robert is friendly with everyone, his brother makes very few friends.

2.         The manager must be notified at one …. a robbery occurs in the hotel.

3.         She looked very young …. she was already a grandmother.

4.         He behaves  …. the world owes him a living.

5.         …. the youngsters today feel very uncertain about the future, some of them are turning to lawless deeds, violence and rioting.

6.         The weather was fine …. they decided to go for a drive in the country.

7.         I have not seen him …. he returned to the country.

8.         …. he finds the mistake in the figures, he will retype the statistical chart.            

9.         …. he went, he was warmly received.                                                                 

10.      We live …. the road crosses the river.                         

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 6

Choose the right answer by crossing a, b, c, d or e.

 

01.      Some newspapers have no advertising                        06.  …. you pay current bill, we will not extend you

at all …. Others carry many advertisements.                      any further credit.

a.     despite                        d. when                                     a. even though             d. if

b.    although                      e. since                                      b. when                       e. since

c.     in spite of                                                                      c. until

 

02.      …. our company has decided to cancel the                  07.  …. the wind dies down, we will go for a long

contact, a number of the conditions in the                          walk.

contract have not been met.                                               a. before                       d. so that

a.     Since                           d. Even though                          b. since                        e. though

b.     Because of                   e. Whenever                               c. after

c.      So that

                                                                                          08.  My uncle could never save enough money to

03.      She was next door chatting with her neighbor                   go on a long vacation …. he has worked hard

…. someone broke into her house and stole                       all his life.

her jewelry.                                                                        a. because                    d. when

a.     since                            d. when                                     b. though                     e. in spite of

b.     in order that                e. until                                       c. if

c.      whereas

                                                                                          09.  He will marry her …. he gets a good job.

04.      We won’t have the picnic …. the weather                          a. as long as                 d. despite

is good.                                                                              b. unless                      e. as soon as

a.     after                            d. if                                            c. whereas

b.     as                                e. unless

c.      because                                                                  10.   He walked to work everyday …. he could

                                                                                                 save a few dollars.

05.      He hasn’t behaved …. a gentleman should                       a. in order that             d. until

behave.                                                                              b. since                        e. in order to

a.     Before                          d. till                                          c. because

b.     so that                         e. even though                   

c.      as                                                                                 

 

Task 1

Practise the following dialogue and answer the questions that follow.

 

DIALOGUE 1

 

Rena and Gita were coming to fetch Karina.

They rang the door bell but no one answered.

 

Rena    : The door is locked.

Gita      : And all the windows are closed. Did she go out to the telephone ?                 

Rena    : Well, Karina must have left. We came five minutes late, didn’t we ?

Gita      :  And everybody must have gone out. They locked the house.

 

a.         Was Karina out when Rena and Gita arrived?

b.         Could they find anybody home?

c.          Why did they conclude that everybody were out?

Give the reason !

d.         How did they express their conclusion?

e.         What is the meaning of must in :

a.     Karina must have left.

b.    Everybody must have gone out.

 

DIALOGUE 2

 

Nadia   : Is Rendi in today?

Siska    : No, he has been absent for two days.

Nadia   : What’s the matter with him ?

Siska    : I don’t know. He didn’t tell me anything.

He might have been ill or he could have gone to Semarang.

Nadia   : But why? Why did he go there?

Siska    : His grandma was seriously ill.

 

 

01.      Could Nadia see Rendi? Why?

02.      Did Siska know exactly why Rendi was absent ?

03.      Did she try to find the reason why Rendi was absent ?

04.      What might be the reason of Rendi’s absence ?

 

DIALOGUE 3

 

Mother   : Veri, why didn’t you study last night ?

You should have studied hard.                             

Harry      : I went to the cinema with my friends.

Mother   : You shouldn’t have done it.

The final exam is coming.

 

01.      Did Veri study hard ?

02.      What did he do instead ?

03.      Did her mother like him going to the cinema ?

04.      How did she express her feeling ?

 

Task2

Study the following summary

 

01.      MUST + HAVE + V-3

Untuk menyatakan suatu kepastian atau kesimpulan tentang sesuatu yang terjadi pada waktu lampau. (past conclusion)

Example : The oil was frozen

It must have been very cold last night.

 

02.      MIGHT + HAVE + V-3

Untuk menyatakan kemungkinan pada waktu lampau. (past possibility)

Example : Lany came late this morning. She might have missed the bus.

 

03.      COULD + HAVE + V-3

Untuk menyatakan kemampuan untuk melakukan sesuatu pada waktu lampau tetapi tidak digunakan (past capability) atau kemungkinan di masa lampau (past possibility).

Example : We didn’t go out last night. We could have gone to the cinema but we decided to stay at home.

Mrs. Nancy was rich. She could have bought a car if she wanted.            

 

04.      SHOULD + HAVE + V-3

Untuk menyatakan saran yang seharusnya dilakukan pada waktu lampau.  (past advice/ suggestion)

Untuk menyatakan harapan yang tidak terpenuhi di masa lampau. (past expectation)

Example : 1. Lena has examination today but she saw the film last night.

She should have studied for her exam.

2. Mirna and Dena left for Purbalingga two hour ago.

They should have arrived by now.

 

Task 3

Change the verbs in the parentheses into modals + perfect

 

01.      She (be) in a great hurry to leave for the theater because she left all the dinner dishes on the table.

02.      That store has just gone bankrupt. I believe they (have) a stricter policy about giving people credit.

03.      If you had done those exercise, you (benefit) from them. It was possible to make your body healthy.

04.      He (not finish) his work immediately, because he was just recovering from a serious operation.

05.      He (do) extremely well in his school work, because he was offered scholarship from several fine universities.

06.      The company (inform) them that their insurance was about to expire.

07.      One of my classmates looks quite depressed. He (not pass) the examination.

08.      When I opened my bag I couldn’t find my keys. I (leave) them at home.

09.      He (save) for the future instead of spending all his money on luxuries.

10.      John said he (be able) to go on the trip, but he wasn’t sure.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 4

Choose the right answer by crossing a, b, c, d or e.                            

 

John was absent yesterday. He …. sick again.                     06. A : You …. the road by the subway. Why do     

a.     must be                       d. ought to be                                you do it?

b.    should have been         e. must have been                      B : Because I didn’t like it.

c.     might be                                                                       a. must have crossed   

                                                                                                 b. would have crossed

“He should have been more tolerant.” means ….                       c. could have crossed

a.     He was more tolerant.                                                   d. might have crossed

b.    He was not tolerant enough.                                          e. ought to have crossed

c.     He was tolerant as I had expected.                               

d.    He has been very tolerant.                                      07. Jane  usually keeps her promise. She had promised

e.     He is not so tolerant.                                                      to come to Mary’s birthday, but she wasn’t there.

                                                                                                 a. something could have happened to her.

X : You were able to help me, why didn’t you?                          b. something must have happened to her. promised                                                                                       c. something might have happened to her.

Y : …., but I was very busy then.                                        d. something should have happened to her.

a.     I could have helped you                                                                                     e. something would have happened to her.

b.    I should have helped you                                              

c.     I must have helped you                                                 08. Police …. the evidences of his crime, so they

d.    I might have helped you                                                arrested him.

e.     I would have helped you                                               a. should have found

                                                                                                 b. must have found

Irma could have seen that film, because she was                       c. could have found

was allowed to. It means that ….                                       d. might have found

a.     she saw that film.                                                          e. ought to have found

b.    she was prohibited to see that film.

c.     She stayed at home.                                               09. The  edges of the road was damaged by the

d.    she and her parents saw the films.                                rain. the local government …. immediately

e.     she didn’t want see the film.                                         otherwise it would fall down.

                                                                                          a. could have repaired them

A : Why did many laborers protest against the                          b. might have repaired them

the new law?                                                              c. must have repaired them

B : Because the government …. their business                   d. would have repaired

with the new law.                                                       e. ought to have repaired them

  1. should have protected                                                             
  2. could have protected                                              10. Fredy : Why didn’t you invite your friends
  3. must have protected                                                                 to come to your birthday party.
  4. might have protected                                                   Hargy : Because I didn’t want to make them
would have protected

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