Jumat, 16 Januari 2009






                                             Main Words (Lexical Meaning)

-       Noun

-       Verb

Words                                   -    Adjective

                                      -    Adverb


                                             Function Words (Grammatical Meaning)

Time (in, on, at, by)



 Place (in, on, at, by, from, to, ….)

Coordinate Conjunctions (and, but, or, nor)



Sub Ordinate Conjunctions

        Quantitative (some, any, one, first, ….)

        Possessive (my, your, our, their, his, her, its)

        Demonstrative (this, that, these, those)

        Pronouns (I, me, mine, You, yours, ….)

        Articles (a, an, the)

I.      NOUN




01.      Subject of a verb.

Example : Recognition is difficult in a dark place.

02.      The complement of the verb.

Example : Mary is a pretty actress.

03.      The object of a verb or a preposition.

Example :  Mother lost patience with him when she saw him smoking.

04.      After apostrophe (‘s).

Example :  Tom’s behavior is very bad

05.      after determiner

a.     articles

   indefinite (a, an)

   definite (the)

Example : We will take an examination next May.

b.     possessive

Example : They didn’t like his interference.

c.      demonstrative

Example : This composition was written by Nadjib.

d.     quantitative

Example : The director appointed some actors to play in his new film.

e.     numbers

§   cardinal (one, two, three, three, ….)

§   ordinal (first, second, third, ….)

Example : The people found two evidences about his involvement in the robbery.

06.      After adjective (descriptive adjective)

Example :

·   The beautiful painting was exhibited in the art gallery.

·   The speaker gave a long speech

07.    After preposition

Example :

ü      I want to see him live in peace.














01.      After Subject or before Object

Between two nouns or between subject and object.

Example :   My friend bought books in the book store.

02.      After to/ preposition

 Example :   He wants to supply the need of his village’s fuel.

The police succeeded in arresting the thieves.

03.      After auxiliaries

 Example :   They will invite their guests to the village’s hall.

They are planning to release their friends from the jail.

04.      The beginning of sentence.

Started with ; please; let’s or don’t + V1

 Example :   Please, Turn off the lights when they are not used.

Let’s do this work together!

Don’t cheat during the test.






It is a word which modifies a noun or a pronoun.

It can have :

a.       an active meaning :

e.g. : The film was interesting.


It was an interesting film.


b.       a passive meaning

e.g. : We were interested in that film.


We were interested audiences.


It is used :

01.      After linking Verbs : look; sound; seem; appear; grow; feel; be; become; remain; smell; taste; stay.

Example :   Mary feels bad.

Children become tired.

Lucy will look radiant in her new dress.

They were sorry to see us leave.

02.      Before the nouns.

(Determiners and descriptive adjective) come before a noun.

Example :   A big town.

A blue car.

An interesting book.






01.      Initial position before the subject

Example : Sometimes she comes late.

02.      Mid-position with the verb

Example : She sometimes comes late.

03.      Final position after the verb plus object or other complements.

Example : She comes late sometimes.

04.    It modifies verb, adverb, adjective, and preposition.

Example :

         Vanesa sings beautifully.

         Vanesa sings extremely beautifully.

         Vanesa was absolutely innocent.

         Vanesa is standing exactly behind the stage.



Verb Suffixes


Here four common verb suffixes:

-ate            investigate                   -ify             notify

-en             broaden                        -ize             hospitalize


Noun Suffixes


Here are some common noun suffixes:

-ment         involvement                 -er              writer

-ness          happinmess                  -or              actor

-ion            permission                   -ism            communism

-ity             possibility                    -ist             socialist

-ance          tolerance                      -ship           friendship

-ence          reference                      -cy              accuracy


Adjective Suffixes


Here are some common adjective suffixes:

-ous            famous                         -ing            boring

-ful             helpful                         -ed             excited

-less           careless                        -ish             foolish

-ive             creative                        -ate            literate

-able           acceptable                    -y               scary

-ible           responsible                   -ly              friendly

-ant            tolerant                        -like            childlike

-ent            dependent                    -some         handsome

-ic               allergic                         -an/-ian       African/ Floridian

-al              classical                        -ese            Chinese


The adjective suffix –ing means “causing a feeling”. The adjective suffix –ed means “experiencing a feeling.” For example, an exciting person causes a feeling of excitement in other people; an excited person feels excitement. The –ed adjectives are often used to describe people, whereas the –ing adjectives are often used to describe things and actions as well as people.


He was a boring teacher, so there were many bored students in his class.

At the end of the tiring day, the tired children were happy to go home.


Adverb Suffix


Adverbs have only one common suffix:

-ly              happily




The following words sound similar or the same and are easily confused in writing. The words are often different parts of speech, so think carefully when you use them.



= verb

The school accepted him for next term.


= preposition

We saw all of the movies except for the first minutes.



= verb

The weather affects our moods.


= noun

The research is about the effect of sunlight on people’s moods.



= possessive adjective

My plant has outgrown its pot.


= it is

I’m not sure where my key is, but I think it’s in the car.



= verb

Clara is always losing her car keys.


= adjective

These pants are loose around the waist.



= noun

The soccer team has three wins and two losses.


= verb (past tense)

= adjective

I lost my credit cards last weekend.

The lost child is wandering the street.



= noun

= adjective

= preposition

My grandmother lives in the past.

This past year has been difficult.

He walked past me without stopping.


= verb (past tense)

Nicole passed the test.


= verb (present)

I hope we pass the final.



= function word

That restaurant has better pizza than pasta.


= adverb

We’re going to dinner and then to a movie.



= function word

= adverb

There are many models of computer to choose from.

Look over there!


= possessive adjective

Did you get their letter?


= they are

They’re going to be late today.



= preposition

Jason can walk to the store.


= adverb

It’s too early for dinner.


= number

I’ve got two tickets for the game tonight.



= possessive adjective

We’re not sure whose book that is.


= who is

That’s the woman who’s moving in next door.



= comparative form of bad    and badly

Robin is worse than I am at bowling.



= superlative form of bad and badly

Which flavor is the worst?




= possessive adjective

Have you done your homework?


= you are

You think you’re so funny.



Task 1

Correct the errors involving suffixes.


1.       I am interesting in Arab literature.

2.       Read the chapter careful.

3.       Is she a success business woman?

4.       I am disappoint about my math grade.

5.       Check in the back of book for a referencing.


Task 2

Correct the errors easily confused words.


  1. Do you have there phone number?
  2. I did to much work last night.
  3. My broken toe effect my posture.
  4. I know where your going.
  5. We past the airport on our way home.


Task 3

Put a check (√) next to the sentences that use word forms correctly. Correct the sentences that have errors. If necessary; use a dictionary to check for the correct word form.


___ 1. This city and university campus are diversity.

___ 2. I feel embarrass when I receive a poor grade on an exam.

___ 3. You should notify your teacher if you are going to be absent.

___ 4. Which way is the easiest?

___ 5. Responsible is something you learn as you become an adult.

___ 6. He has a distance friend that is coming to visit next month.

___ 7. The computer industry is stronger than the manufacturing industry.

___ 8. Phong had feeling of happy, doubt, and pain.

___ 9. I’m not going to sacrifice friends and family to become more richer.

___ 10. She doesn’t accept your answer.

___ 11. They dance so good together.

___ 12. That is the importantest paper that I have ever signed.





Task 4

In the following essay, the underlined words are not correct. Write the correct word in the space available. Use a dictionary if necessary to check the correct word form.


The novel Travels with Charley describes the America that John Steinbeck discovers as he travels from one (1) … coastal to the other. He is traveling alone (2) … accept for a companion named Charley, a big (3) … friend dog. We get to know Charley (4) … good by the end of the book because the author spends so much time with him. Even though Charley is lazy, he is (5) … more smart than other dogs. And in some cases Steinbeck is even (6) … foolisher than Charley. Charley is a trustworthy dog. He also adds (7) … excited moments to the story. In fact, what Charley does when Steinbeck is stopped by the Canadian police is one of the (8) … interestingest parts of the novel.

Even with (9) … it’s good parts, we were (10) … disappointing in Travels with Charley. We both expected to read more about North American life (11) … then Charley’s adventures. The (12) … pleasantest part of the book is when Steinbeck writes about the North American scenery and people. The book also does a good job of showing how people need supportive friendship, even if it’s only a dog that provides it.


Task 4

Read the following paragraph. Complete the paragraph with the correct form of each word given. If necessary, use a dictionary to select suffixes for different parts of speech.


The traditional roles that men and women have played throughout history have been very (1) … differ. In many (2) … culture, the majority of jobs and activities are still divided into men’s or women’s work, although this practice is changing. In (3) … tradition cultures or families, the women accept the subservient role and are (4) … depend on men for (5) … finance support and leadership within the family. In many parts of the world, these roles are changing as women take over some of the duties that men have (6) … tradition held. In many cases men (7) … glad hand over their positions of dominance. Men and women now have equal educational opportunities and job prospects after their (8) … graduate from high school or college. It is impossible to say which system is the (9) … good one, but people no longer question a woman’s right to pursue a career and have a family or a man’s (10) … decide to make the family his first priority. These are (11) … signify advances for both sexes and changes that make life (12) … easy than it was in the past.


Task 5

The following paragraph has ten errors in the use of word forms and easily confused words. Find and correct the errors. If necessary, use a dictionary to find the correct word form.


When I am asked to describe myself as a writer, I have a difficult time writing down my thoughts. I am a slowly writer and find the most tough part of an essay to write is the introduction. Sometimes I sit impatient in front of the computer for hours with only a few words to show for my time. I know writing is a slow process, but I am frustrating a lot of the time. Once I am passed the introduction, I write the body and conclusion more rapid. In fact, to be honest, I almost enjoy writing by the time I finish a paper. It’s a big accomplishment, and I always feel proud of myself. In-class writing can be even bigger problem than out-of-class writing. An essay exam is always frightened, especially when I am given only a short period of time to complete it. I usually write very slow on these tests and never have time to finish. Even though writing makes me feel uncomfortable, I know I have to work on this importance skill. I definitely plan on becoming a good writer as quickly as possibly. My teachers keep telling me that if I write oftener, I’ll be more comfortable and less anxious about putting my thoughts on paper.

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