Jumat, 16 Januari 2009




Task 1

Study the following sentences and answer the questions.


1.       Why do leaf miners burrow inside a leaf ?

2.       What do leaf miners burrow inside a leaf for ?


Leaf miners burrow inside a leaf to get food.

Leaf miners burrow inside a leaf for getting food.

Leaf miners burrow inside a leaf for food.


1.      What is the pattern of the underlined words ?

2.      What is the function of the underlined words ?


Task 2

Complete these statements.


1.       We use to + infinitive to talk about ____________ of doing something (why someone does something)


2.       We also use to + infinitive to talk about the ____________ of something or why someone has/ needs/ wants something.


3.       We use for + V-ing to talk about the ____________ of doing something.

                  for + noun


Task 3

Answer the following questions by using the words in brackets !


01.   What do the students study for ? (improve their knowledge)

02.   Why did they go to the office ? (more information)

03.   Why does she bring a lot of books ? (read)

04.   What did many people go to the city for ? (job)

05.   Why does every major city in the world provide bus ? (public transportation)

06.   Why do some countries help Cambodia ? ( supply staple food )

07.   Why does our government carry out reformation ? (reconstruct monetary and economical system)

08.   What did the archeologist travel from one place to the others for  ? (search for artifacts)

09.   What will Indonesian government carry out general election for ? (elect the President )

10.   Why do some new students practice march ? (Indonesian independence day anniversary )




















Task 1

Study the following sentences and answer the questions.


1.  a. We want to know the correct product to use.    Means

b. We want to know the correct product that we should use.


2.  a. Could I have some seeds to plant ?    means

b. Could I have some seeds that I can plant ?


1.      What is the pattern of the underlined words in sentence 1a and 2 a ?

2.      What is the pattern of the underlined words in sentence 1b and 2b ?

3.      What is the meaning of the sentence 1a ?

4.      What is the meaning of the sentence 2a ?


Task 2

Complete these sentences !


1.       We use noun + to infinitive to talk about the _____________ of doing something. (We are expected to do something)

2.       We also use noun + to infinitive to talk about ______________ of doing something. (We are able to do something)


Task 3

Now, finish the following :


01.   Don’t you have any homework to do ? Means ….

02.   The farmers plant onions and chilies to sell at the market. Means ….

03.   There is a problem to discuss before we realize our plan. Means ….

04.   We need valuable information to get at garden stores before we use the product. Means ….

05.   The farmers require agricultural tools and seeds to buy at the garden store, before they cultivate the rice field. Means ….

06.   everyone buys clothes to wear everyday. Means ….

07.   Nowadays most of Indonesians need staple food to eat. Means ….

08.   We need a good authority to trust. Means ….

09.   Indonesia has abundant natural resources to exploit well. Means ….

10.   The Jepara craftsmen make furniture to export abroad. Means ….



















Task 1

Pay attention to the sentences below. Answer the questions that follow !


a.       70 people had been killed by flood.

b.       10.36 billion is needed to repair the irrigation facilities.

c.       Kali Comal bridge was damaged by flood 3 years ago.

d.       The damaged irrigation facilities might be repaired by the government before the end of  March.

e.       The farmers’ fields in East and Central Java have been damaged by floods.


1.       Are the sentences written in the active or passive form ?

2.       What form of verb in the passive, the infinitive, the past or the past participle form ?

3.       What word is put before the verb ?

4.       What is the main point of passive ?


1.       Verbs usually followed by two objects :


ask, bring, give, hand, mail, offer, pay, send, show, teach, tell, and so on.


Example : The Agriculture Ministry would send the farmers seed and tools.

The farmers ________________________________________

Seed and tools ______________________________________


2.       The passive –ING from is being + Past Participle.

Example :

Active      : I don’t like people telling me what to do.

Passive     : I don’t like being told what to do

Active      : Dudi hates people forcing him to do.

Passive     : __________________________________________


3.       We can use “GET” instead of “BE” in the passive.

a.       The enemy bombed the city but nobody got hurt. (= nobody was hurt)

Did the members get offered much aid ? (= …. the members offered much aid ?)


4.       IMPERSONAL USE.           It is …. It was …. It has been …. It will be ….


After : acknowledge, assume, believe, claim, consider, estimate, feel, find, know, presume, report, say, think. understand.

Example :

  1. People consider him honest.

-   It is considered that he is honest.

-   He is considered (to be) honest)

  1. People considered him honest.

-   It was considered that he was honest.

-   He was considered honest.

  1. People consider that he is jealous of her.

-   _____________________________________

-   _____________________________________

  1. People consider that he was jealous of her.

-   _____________________________________

-   _____________________________________

  1. People considered that he was jealous of her.

-   _____________________________________

-   _____________________________________



Task 2

Change the following sentences into passive voice.


01.         Somebody calls the president everyday.

02.         John is calling the other members.

03.         Martha was delivering the documents to the department.

04.         The other members have repealed the amendment.

05.         The delegates had received the information before the recess.

06.         The teacher should buy the supplies for this class.

07.         Somebody will call Mr. Wilson tonight.

08.         The fire has caused considerable damage.

09.         The company was developing a new procedure before the bankruptcy hearings began.

10.         John will have received the papers by tomorrow.


Task 3

Change the following sentences into two possible passive voice.


01.   The company gave Mr. Jackson a notice of dismissal.

02.   We have mailed them the sample today.

03.   The waiter handed him the bill.

04.   The hotel is furnishing him everything he needs.

05.   The child’s aunt had brought him some warm clothes.

06.   The teacher will teach the class the next lesson.

07.   An old resident had told us the whole story.

08.   His employer had assigned him too many duties.

09.   The bank is lending him the money.

10.   We won’t refuse her this last request.


Task 4

Put into two possible passive voice.


01.   They feel that the situation may become difficult.

02.   A spokesman has said that they will pay all the shareholders.

03.   We usually find that over-eating causes the trouble.

04.   There is reason to believe that they have saved the crew.

05.   People have often said electricity will replace gas.

06.   They say the vegetable oil is getting scarce.

07.   You usually find that these stories are false.

08.   One so often feels that these situations need never arise.

09.   They hope that things will improve soon.

10.   People rumor that the money has disappeared.


Task 5

Change the following sentences into Passive Voice.


01.         He doesn’t like his brother driving him to work; he prefers his brother taking him to the bus station.

02.         I remembered my father taking me to the zoo in the last holidays.

03.         She hates people gossiping her every moment.

04.         The aging couple are counting on their children helping them financially.

05.         He dislikes the reporters interviewing him about the private affair.

06.         I enjoy people praising me my being successful.

07.         She can’t stand her parents blaming her their bad relationship.

08.         He recalled the police revoking him driving license.

09.          I hate my family treating me foolishly.

10.         She imagined him marrying her soon.




Task 1

Study the following information !


Adjective (Kata Sifat)

Kata Sifat ada dua jenis :


1.       Descriptive (menggambarkan) adjective yaitu kata sifat yang menggambarkan warna, ukuran, atau kualitas orang atau benda.

2.       Limiting (pembatas) adjective yaitu kata sifat yang menjelaskan kuantitas (jumlah), distance (jarak), possessive (milik) dan lain-lain.







sympathetic, beautiful

cardinal numbers

one, two, three …


large, medium, small

ordinal numbers

first, second, …


round, circle, square


my, your, his, …


new, old, neo, modern


this, that, these, those.


hot, cold, warm, cool


few, many, much, little …


white, green, black


a, an, the.


Italian, Chinese, Iraqi




wooden, golden, leather




traveling, walking




THE ORDER OF DESCRIPTIVE ADJECTIVE (Urutan Kata sifat yang menggambarkan)












































Task 2

Put the adjective in brackets in the correct order.


01.         Linda bought a pair of shoes yesterday. (leather, black, expensive, new style, medium).

02.         Baturaden is a town in Purwokerto. (mountainous, lovely, little)

03.         Mrs. Anita is a teacher. (attractive, white, young, tall, English)

04.         I teach at a school in Purbalingga. (favorite, big, modern)

05.         I’d like to grow the rode in my garden. (red, beautiful, short, Chinese)

06.         I went to the beach last holidays. (sandy, white, vast, nice, warm)

07.         Amalia bought as dress in the “Harum Department Store” last week. (lovely, white, long, expensive)

08.         The government has built a dam in Banjarnegara. (gigantic, useful, scenic, picnicking)

09.         Mrs. Anwar bought a piano. (white, expensive, Italian, antique)

10.         I have lived in this house since 2000. (old, Parisian, green, very large, wooden)














Task 1

Study the dialogue, then get the information from it to fill in the form.


Rendy   :  Waiter, could I see the menu, please ?

Waiter  :  Certainly, Sir. Here you are.

(After waiting for some moments). What would you like to have, Sir ?

Steak, beef steak, fried chicken, salad or something else ?

Rendy   :  I’d rather have vegetables; so bring me salad, please.

Waiter  :  What about the drink, Sir ?

Would you have coffee, tea or soda ?

Rendy   :  Err …., I don’t like soda.

I prefer coffee to soda.

Waiter  :  How would you like it, Sir ? Black or white ?

Rendy   :  Well, I’ve never drunk milk since I had trouble with my liver.

I like black coffee better than with milk.


What/ How Rendy likes to have

  1. Food     : _______________________________________
  2. Drink     : _______________________________________
  3. How      : _______________________________________













2.  From the table you have filled you can conclude that :

a.       Rendy would rather ____________ than meat.

b.      Rendy prefers ____________ to soda.

c.       Rendy likes ____________ better than with milk.


3.       Read the dialogue again and find three different ways how Rendy expresses his PREFERENCE.

a.       ______________________________________

b.       ______________________________________

c.       ______________________________________


Task 2

Make sentences with prefer, like or would rather from the following sentences.


01.   I (stay) at home over Christmas holidays than (go) abroad.

02.   I’m sure Alice (read) a book to (write) a composition.

03.   He (live) in Jakarta better than (live) in Bandung.

04.   Anna (work) for a company to (become) a teacher.

05.   Mary (eat) her lunch now than (have) it later.

06.   Mother (cook) to (sew)

07.   We (meet) you in the lobby of the hotel than (meet) you at the airport.

08.   John (listen) to the radio to (read) a newspaper.

09.   I (watch) a television program better than (go) to the cinema.

10.   Susan (walk) to the bus stop better than (wait) in front of her house.









Task 3

Use the following cues to make sentences to show preferences.


01.   I – play football – see the film (like)

02.   We – do the homework – now – tomorrow (would rather)

03.   My grandfather – drink – milk – tea (prefer)

04.   He – tea – coffee (prefer)

05.   Tony – go out – stay at home (like)

06.   She – sing popular song – dance (would rather)

07.   they – read – novel – short stories (prefer)

08.   Lina – orange juice – coffee (would rather)

09.   Mother – fried rice – boiled eggs (prefer)

10.   Bambang – play – tennis – badminton (like)


Task 4

Study the dialogue  !


Jane      : Suppose you have completed your studies. Which do you prefer, working in a bank or getting a job in a hospital ?

Martha : I prefer working in a bank to getting a job in a hospital.


Now write and practice the dialogue like the example using the words below.


in a hospital                                                         in a accountant’s office

in a sport shop                                                     in a travel office

in a restaurant                                                      in a hotel

in a factory                                                          in a lawyer’s office

in a bookshop                                                     in a private company





Task 1

Study this example of situation !


Yesterday morning Mary got up and looked out of the window. The sun was shining but the ground was very wet. It had rained. It wasn’t raining when Mary looked out of the window; the sun was shining. But it had rained. That’s why the ground was wet.


Answer these questions !


1.       What did Mary do when she got up yesterday morning ?

2.       Was the sun shining brightly that day ?

3.       How was the ground ?

4.       What had happened the night before ?


Task 2

Study the following sentence and answer the questions that follow !


It had rained.


1.       What is the pattern of the sentence above ?

2.       When is this tense used ?





Task 3

Study the following summary.


1.       Use (Penggunaan)

Past Perfect digunakan untuk menggambarkan suatu kejadian yang telah selesai pada waktu lampau dan terjadi sebelum kejadian lain pada masa lampau.

2.       Past Perfect biasanya digunakan dengan adverb of time (keterangan waktu) :

already, just, yet, ever, never, scarcely, barely, no sooner.

Example :   a. He had just got the letter when I came.

b. She had never done it before he came here.

c. Had you ever seen the animal when you were there ?

3.       Past Perfect biasanya terjadi bersama-bersama dengan Simple Past yang mengungkapkan kejadian berikutnya (kemudian)


After + S + had + V-3, S + V-2

Before + S + V-2, S + had + V-3



By the time                   S + had + V-3, S + V-2

Because                        S + V-2, S + had + V-3



Task 4

Supply the correct form of the verbs in the parentheses


01.   We (just sit) down to dinner when a fire (break out) in the kitchen.

02.   I (hear) many things about this country before I (come) here.

03.   When she (finish) her work, she (go) to the movies.

04.   The children (fight for) some time before their mother (separate) them.

05.   They ( be married) for five years before any friction (arise) between them.

06.   They (plan) for a long time to move to the suburbs before they (stay) there.

07.   When the doorbell (ring), we (just sit) down to dinner.

08.   Because she (not reported) the theft immediately, the police (be) unable to help her.

09.   Before he (be) elected to be a president, he (be) a member of Congress for many years.

10.   He (wonder) whether he (leave) his wallet at home.




Task 1

Read the following dialogue !


Mr. Jones    :   What’s your plan for the next meeting, Mr. Smith ?

Mr. Smith    :  Let me see. The meeting will be held in the first week next month. We have to start to work tomorrow morning and by the end of this month we will have finished typing the papers. We will have about five other days to do other things and when the meeting is held we will have done our task completely.


Task 2

Answer the following questions !


1.       When will Mr. Jones and Mr. Smith have a meeting ?

2.       What must they do before the meeting ?

3.       What does Mr. Smith plan to do tomorrow ?

4.       When does Mr. Smith want to finish typing the papers ?

5.       Does he want to continue working when the meeting is held ?

How do you know ?


Task 3

Pay attention to these sentences, then answer the questions !


We will have finished typing the papers by the end of this month.

We will have done our task completely when the meeting is held.


1.       What is the appropriate time for the sentences above ? (future, present, or past)

2.       What is the pattern of the sentence above ?

3.       When do we use this pattern ?


Task 4

Study the following summary !


1.       S + will/shall + have + V-3 digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kegiatan yang dimulai pada masa lampau dan akan berakhir pada suatu saat tertentu diwaktu yang akan datang.


2.       FUTURE PERFECT biasanya ditandai dengan keterangan waktu : at the end of this year, by (then, the time, 31st Dec), when, before, after.



By the time                  S + V-I/s/es,     S + will/shall + have + V-3

Before                                have + V-3

After                                   has



Task 5

Put the verbs in the right form.


01.   By the time the rehearsal (be) over, the audience (begin) to enter the theater.

02.   By next year, he (forget) everything he learned in this class.

03.   He (make) more than a million dollar when he (retire) from his work.

04.   Before he (leave) Bandung, he (go) to every museum in town.

05.   By the end of the semester, your English (improve) tremendously.

06.   At the end of this summer, I (be) away from home for ten years.

07.   The political prisoners (escape) from the country by the time their absence (be) notice.

08.   On the 30th this month he (complete) his tour of Europe.

09.   They (be) in the United States for thirty years before they (move) to Indonesia.

10.   By the time he (leave) Las Vegas, he (lose) a great deal of money at the gambling tables.





















S + V + O + V-1/ing/V-3


Task 1

Study the following dialogue and answer the questions.




Doddy     : What do you want to order Lisa ?

Lisa         : Let me see the menu first.

Doddy     : All right. Here you are.

Lisa         : Please order for me fried chicken and mushroom soup.

Doddy     : I fee like to have roast-beef and some “sayur asam”.

(to the waitress) One fried chicken, some mushroom-soup, one roast-beef and some sayur asam, please !

Waitress  : What would you like to drink, sir ?

Lisa         : Two tomato juices, please.

Doddy     : By the way, did you see Mary at school ?

Lisa         : No, I did not, but I saw her buy new school bag yesterday.

Doddy     : Did you talk to her ?

Lisa         : No, I was in my car. I helped my mother put the things we bought in the car. As I was going to call her, I noticed her leave.


01.   What kind of food did they order ?

02.   What did Lisa say before she ordered the food ?

03.   Did they talk about their friend ? Who is she ?

04.   What did Mary do when Lisa saw her ?

05.   What did Lisa do to her mother ?

06.   What did Lisa notice ?


Task 2

Study the following sentences !


1.       I saw her buy a new school bag yesterday.

2.       I helped my mother put the things we bought in the car.

3.       I noticed her leave.


1.       What do you know about the “word order” of the sentences ?

2.       What about the verb of the second verb in each sentence ?

3.       When do we use this kind of verb ?


















                                               I saw them take him to the hospital

                                               I listen to the radio announce advertisements.

                                               He observed them repair the bridges.

                                               I watched them rehearse the play

                                               She noticed him polish the shoes.

                                               I felt someone touch my back.

                                               I looked at the artist paint the paintings.

                                               I hear him make arrangement for his journey.

                                               I make her bring my book back.

                                               He helped me move the table.

                                               They let the peasants cultivate their rice field.

                                               She has her maid wash her suits.




B.      VERBS THAT HAVE PATTERN (S + V + O + V-ing)















                                               I saw them taking him to the hospital

                                               I listen to the radio announcing advertisements.

                                               He observed them repairing the bridges.

                                               I watched them rehearsing the play

                                               She noticed him polishing the shoes.

                                               I felt someone touching my back.

                                               I looked at the artist painting the paintings.

                                               I hear him making arrangement for his journey.

                                               I found them deserting the house.

                                               We smell something burning.

                                               Her father caught the little boy smoking.

                                               The medicine kept me sleeping.

                                               The man left us waiting outside.




















                                               I saw him taken to the hospital

                                               I listen to advertisements announced advertisement.

                                               He observed the bridges repaired.

                                               I watched the play rehearsed.

                                               She noticed the shoes polished.

                                               I felt my back touched.

                                               I looked at the paintings  painted.

                                               I hear arrangement made for his journey.

                                               I make my book brought back.

                                               He helped the table moved.

                                               They let their rice field cultivated. 

She has her suits washed.

                                               I found the house deserted.

                                               I like the eggs boiled.

                                               I want the door painted green.



Task 3

Combine the following sentences !


01.   We heard the men. They talked about general election.

02.   They work very hard. Andi makes them.

03.   She watched her brother. He left his apartment.

04.   I hear the children. They sing a beautiful song.

05.   Jane noticed her brother. He repaired his bike himself.

06.   I let my sister. She cooks the food for me.

07.   He saw the car. It hit an old man in the middle of the street.

08.   We cleaned all window-pane. Father watched us.

09.   The teacher didn’t see Paul. He ate chocolate in the classroom.

10.   The teacher gives a speech in the farewell party. The students make him.









Task 4

Combine the following sentences !


01.   Can you smell something ? It is burning.

02.   She was cheating. The teacher didn’t look at her.

03.   I saw the boy. He was running along the beach.

04.   The cat was sleeping in my bed. I found it.

05.   The little boy is stealing the fruit. The gardener catches him.

06.   We listened to him. He was playing the violin for few minutes.

07.   Her heart was beating wildly. She could feel it.

08.   He was dozing under a tree. I found him.

09.   They left me. I was waiting outside.

10.   They are picking the ripe fruit. I watch them.


Task 5

Change the following sentences by using the verbs, let, make, or have. (S + V + O + V-1 and V-3)


01.   I will allow Risa to tidy up my bedroom.

02.   We must ask Mr. Amat to feed the chicken while we are away.

03.   She always forces her sister to iron her clothes.

04.   The teacher always orders us to do the homework.

05.   The chairman has persuaded them to give money to the club.

06.   Andi doesn’t permit them to enter his room.

07.   The coach wants the players to do their exercises seriously.

08.   Mr. Hendra allows the students leave the classroom.

09.   His manager asked him to translate the letter.

10.   Mother always persuades me to drink milk before going to school.



























Task 1

Study the following dialogue, then answer the questions that follow !


Tommy    : I think I left my lighter in your house. Have you seen it ?

Diana       : No, but I’ll have a look. If I find it, I’ll give it to you.


1.        What does Tommy think of his lighter ?

2.        Is Diana sure about it ?

3.        Is there any possibility that Diana will find the lighter ? How do you know ?


Task 2

Read the dialogue again, then answer the following questions !


1.        What does the underlined sentence consist of ?

2.        What tenses are used in each clause ?

3.        What does the underlined sentence tell you ?


Task 3

Supply the correct form of the verb in parentheses.


01.    I’ll look for you notebook and if I (find) it I (give) you a ring.

02.    If you (smoke) in a non-smoking compartment, the other passengers (object)

03.    I’ll wash the glasses in boiling water. No, I don’t. If you (put) them into boiling water they (crack)

04.    If you (see) Tom, ask him to ring me.

05.    If he (win) he (get) Rp. 1000,000; if he (come) in second he (get) Rp. 500,000.

06.    If you (wait) a moment I (come) with you.

07.    He’s only fifteen but he wants to leave school at the end of term. If he (leave) now he (be) sorry afterwards.

08.    Unless Tom (take) his library book back tomorrow he (have) to pay a fine.

09.    I expect it will freeze tonight. If it (freeze) tonight the roads (be) very slippery tomorrow.

10.    If you (not feel) well tomorrow you’d better take the day off.

11.    If a driver (brake) suddenly on a wet road he (have) a skid.

12.    Jack (in canoe): Watch me ! I’m going to stand up !

Tom (on the bank) : He’s idiot ! If he (stand) up in the canoe it (capsize).

13.    The lift wasn’t working when I was here last. If it still (not work) we (have) to use the stairs.

14.    If you (like), I (get) you a job in this company.

15.    If Jack (not help) we (have) to manage without him.


Task 4

Study the dialogue, then answer the questions !


John Helen, and Tom are waiting for Mary.


John      : We have been waiting for Mary for half an hour.

Helen    : I’m afraid that she forgets that we have a meeting today.

John      : Tom, can you call her ?

Tom      : Sorry. If I knew her number, I would telephone her.


1.        Who have been waiting for Mary ?

2.        What will they do ?

3.        What does John ask Tom ?

4.        Does Tom know Mary’s number ?

5.        What does tom think at that time ?

6.        What do you think the last sentence mean ?


Task 5

Read the dialogue again then answer the following questions.


1.        What does the underlined sentence consist of ?

2.        What tenses are used in each clause ?

3.        What does the underlined sentence tell you ?



Task 6

Supply the correct form of the verb in the bracket.


01.    Of course I’m going to give her a diamond ring. If I (give) her a diamond ring she (sell) it.

02.    Tom : I woke up to find the room full of smoke; but I knew exactly what to do.

Ann : If I (wake) up to find the room full of smoke I (have) no idea what to do.

03.    If someone (say),”I’ll give you Rp. 500,000 to go into court and swear that this statement is true,” what you (do).

04.    If we (work) all night we (finish) in time; but we have no intention of working all night.

05.    You must never blow out a gas light. Do you know what (happen) if You (blow) out a gas light ?

06.    If I (see) a tiger walking across Hyde Park I (climb) a tree. That (not be) any use. The tiger (climb) after you.

07.    If I (come) across two men fighting with knives I (call) the police. But this is a very peaceful area.

08.    Tom : the plane was on fire so we baled out.

Ann : I don’t think I (have) the nerve to do that even if the plane (be) on fire.

09.    We train the children to file out of the classroom quietly, because if whole class (rush) at the door someone (get) hurt.

10.    Why don’t you buy a season ticket ?

Because I lose everything. If I (buy) a season ticket I (lose) it.


Task 7

Study the following dialogue and answer the questions that follow !


Tommy    : Hi, Ann. I haven’t seen you for ages.

Anna        : Well. I felt ill when I visited my sister in Bandung last week.

Tommy    : That’s a pity. I was also in Bandung last week.

If I had known you were ill, I would have gone to see you then.


1.        Who hasn’t Tommy seen for a long time ?

2.        What happened to Anna ?

3.        Where was Tommy at that time ?

4.        Did Tommy know that Anna was ill ?

5.        Did he see Anna when he was in Bandung ?

6.        What does the last sentence mean ?


Task 8

Read the dialogue again and answer the following questions.


1.        What does the underlined sentence consist of ?

2.        What tenses are used in each clause ?

3.        What does the underlined sentence tell you ?


Task 9

Supply the correct form of the verb in the parentheses.


01.    If he (not take) his gloves off he (not get) frost bitten.

02.    She was sent to prison only because she refused to pay the fine; she (not be) sent to prison if she (pay) the fine.

03.    He didn’t tell me that he was a vegetarian till halfway through the meal. I (cook) him something more suitable if he (tell) me earlier.

04.    I had no map so that’s why I got lost. If I (have) a map I (be) all right.

05.    why didn’t you say that you were short of money ? If I (know) I (lend) you some.

06.    It’s lucky he had his torch with him. He (fall) down the cellar steps if he (not have) it.

07.    The job is much worse than I expected. If I (realize) how awful it was going to be I (not accept) it.

08.    This paraffin heater was perfectly safe. There (not be) a fire if the children (not knock) it over.

09.    It’s a pity he never patented his invention. He (make) a lot of money if he (patent) it.

10.    If only they (have) a map and compass with them they (not be) drowned.


Task 10

Rewrite these sentences, using an if construction.


01.    She is very shy; that’s why she doesn’t enjoy parties.

02.    We got a lift, so we reached the station in time.

03.    He doesn’t work overtime, so he doesn’t earn as much as I do.

04.    I’m fat; that’s why I can’t get through the bathroom window.

05.    We missed the train because we were using an out-of-date timetable.

06.    We only came by bus because there were no taxi.

07.    The police are not armed so we don’t have gun battles in the street.

08.    They were driving very quickly. That’s why the accident was so terrible.

09.    He doesn’t help me, possibly because I never ask him for help.

10.    It rained all the time, perhaps that’s why he didn’t enjoy his visit.






There are 3 types of Conditional Sentences :







do + not + V-1

does + not + V-1

will/shall + V-1


V-2 / were

did + not + V-1

would/should + V-1


had + V-3

would/ should + have + V-3


Type I (Future Possible Condition) :

e.g. :  If she invites me, I will go to her party.

= Should she invite me, I will go to her party.


Type II (Present Unreal Condition) :

e.g. : She doesn’t invite me so I don’t go to her party.

à If she invited me, I would go to her party.

= Were she to invite me, I would go to her party.


       Another example :

      He is very selfish so he doesn’t have many friends.

à If he were not very selfish, he would have many friends.

= Were he not very selfish, he would have many friends.


Type III (Past Unreal Condition) :

e.g. : She didn’t invite me so I didn’t go to her party.

à If she had invited me, I would have gone to her party.

= Had she  invited me, I would go to her party.




Type I      :   If you don’t study hard, you will not pass the exam.

You must study hard otherwise you will not pass the exam.


(Fact) You study hard so you pass the exam.

Type II     :  If you didn’t study hard, you would not pass the exam.

You always study hard otherwise you would not pass the exam


(Fact) You studied hard so you passed the exam.

Type III    :   If you hadn’t studied hard, you would not have passed the exam.

You studied hard otherwise you would not have passed the exam.


Note on “UNLESS” à jika subjek tidak/ kecuali jika


Unless = if ….. not

If he does not get sick, he will certainly join us in the game.

= Unless he gets sick, he will certainly join us in the game.











                                                                                                                                            Time Signals

                             V2                                                                     Present Situation                        now                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        today

a.  S1  +  wish/es  +  S2  +               were                                                                               


wished                              had + V3                        Past Situation                             yesterday

                                                                                                                                …. ago

                                                                                                                                            last ….

e.g. I am sorry she is late. (fact)

I wish she weren’t late


I am sorry she was late. (fact)

I wish she hadn’t been late.


                                                                                                                                                   Time Signals

                act/s                                                           V2                         Present Situation            now

b. S1    +    behave/s   +  as if         +   S2    +               were                                                                  

   walks             as though                           


act/s/ed                                                      had  +  V3                        Past Situation                 … ago

behave/s/d                                                                                                                   last ….



e.g. He acts as if he knew the answer.

(fact) He doesn’t know the answer.


He acted as if he had known the answer.

(fact) He didn’t know the answer.


                                  V2                                   Present Situation        e.g. She doesn’t come today.

c. If only  +  S  +              were                                                                       If only she came today.          


                                         had  +  V3                                           Past Situation             e.g. She didn’t come yesterday.

                                                                                                                       If only she had come yesterday.



                                                     V2                                      Present Situation     e.g.   They keep quiet.

d. S1 + would rather + S2  +               were                                                                          I’d rather they didn’t

                                                                                                                                            keep quiet.

                                                           had  +  V3                                                 Past Situation          e.g.   They kept quiet.

                                                                                                                                            I’d rather they hadn’t

                                                                                                                                            kept quiet.


e. It’s time  +  S  +  V2                       e.g. : It’s time you took care of the children.                                                                                                                           (fact) : (You are late to take care of the children.)


Task 1

Put the verbs in brackets into the correct forms.


01.    I wish they (not give) the children much pocket money.

02.    My father wishes we (tell) him about it the day before.

03.    His parents wished he (postpone) his marriage till he was graduated.

04.    The manager wishes I (go) to attend the meeting now.

05.    We wish you (ask) your father first before you make a decision.

06.    He wished I (come) before he left home this morning.

07.    she wishes she (buy) a new dress for the party.

08.    My watch is not working. I wish I (not buy) it from that man yesterday.

09.    We wish we (not be) rude to the new gardener.

10.    She wishes she (know) the truth. Then she would not have punished them.


Task 2

What do you think each of these sentences mean ?


Example :  Rini wishes she got good marks in the test.

It means that Rini doesn’t get good marks in the test.


01.    I wish I had gone to Kuta Beach with my parents.

02.    They wish they had visited Mr. Dedy when he was ill.

03.    I wish you came with us to the fair.

04.    He wishes that he had seen her when she came yesterday.

05.    It has stopped raining now. I wish I could go to the match.


Task 3

For each of these situations/ fact, make an appropriate sentence using wish construction.


Example :   She didn’t know the answer of the last questions. The teacher was disappointed with her.

The teacher wishes she had known the answer of the last questions.


01.    They didn’t practice in the laboratory yesterday afternoon. The coach wishes ….

02.    He was careless and got an accident. He wished ….

03.    the students don’t understand the lesson. The teacher wishes ….

04.    The journalist writes an article about the conflict in Aceh. The editor wishes ….

05.    I studied for one hour everyday last semester. I wished ….


Task 4

Change the verbs in the parentheses into the correct form.


01.    She looked me as if she …. (know) the secret.

02.    He didn’t trust me as though I …. (ever cheat) him.

03.    She acts as if she …. (know) English perfectly.

04.    The monkey obey his master as if it …. (understand) his words.

05.    I behaved as though the food …. (be) very tasty.

06.    I feel very strong as though I …. (can) shake this earth.

07.    He gobbled the food as if he …. (not eat) for days.

08.    She stared at me as if I …. (be) stranger.

09.    I feel as if the time …. (go) faster.

10.    She came in, looking as though she …. (see) a ghost.


Task 5

Now by using as if/ as though, complete the sentences in the opposite situation.


01.    I didn’t ask him to do that, but he blamed me ____________________________________________.

02.    He knows us, but he acted ___________________________________________________________.

03.    The house is not hers, but she behaves _________________________________________________.

04.    They didn’t find gold, but they were excited ____________________________________________.

05.    The boy is not own son, but they treat the boy ___________________________________________.

06.    They are not my brothers, but they often treat me ________________________________________.

07.    I am not an ignorant child, but she talked to me _________________________________________.

08.    She is not a queen, but every treats her ________________________________________________.

09.    She knows me, but she stares at me ___________________________________________________.

10.    A tiger is not chasing them, but they are running _________________________________________.


Task 6

Make the subjunctive “if only” from the following real fact.


01.    Your father will not allow you to use his car.

02.    She didn’t see the doctor’s knives.

03.    The fire brigade got difficulties to reach the place.

04.    You house is not as big as Rita’s.

05.    They didn’t see you hide behind the tree.

06.    It rained hard last night.

07.    the thief didn’t find the key to your cupboard.

08.    The brakes of your car were effective.

09.    You don’t meet her at the party.

10.    You did not study hard enough.


Task 7

Find the meaning of the following subjunctives !


01.    Mufti says,”If only I had known it was your birthday, I would have bought you a gift.”

Adi says, “It means that he _________________________________________________________.”

02.    Tourist says, ”If only we had taken map, we wouldn’t have got lost.”

Guide says, “It means that we _______________________________________________________.”

03.    Andi says, “If only we didn’t drive fast, we wouldn’t have an accident.”

Budi says, “It means that we ________________________________________________________.”

04.    Mother says, “If only the children hadn’t chased the dog they wouldn’t have got bitten.”

Father says, “It means that they ______________________________________________________.”

05.    Winda says, “If only we didn’t go out in the rain, we wouldn’t get wet.”

Reny says, “It means that we ________________________________________________________.”


Task 8

What do these sentences mean ?


Example :   I’d rather you went by train.

I want you to go by train. (You don’t go by train) (fact)


01.    I’d rather she took the job which was offered to her.

02.    I’d rather you hadn’t told him anything about it yesterday.

03.    I’d rather you paid the money now.

04.    I’d rather you returned her books now.

05.    I’d rather they had solved the problem before yesterday.


Task 9

Complete the following by using I’d rather you ______ !


Example :  I’ll phone John if you really want me to but ____________.

I’d rather you phoned me.


01.    I’ll go to the bank if you really want me to but ______________________________________________.

02.    I’ll meet him at the station if you really want me to but _______________________________________.

03.    I’ll tell Rudy what happened if you really want me to but _____________________________________.

04.    I’ll cook the dinner if you really want me to but _____________________________________________.

05.    I’ll do the washing up if you really want me to but ___________________________________________.














Task 1

Fill in the blanks with who, whom, whose/ of which or which.


01.    That is the man …. repaired my television set.

02.    The assignments …. We did yesterday were very difficult.

03.    The police have caught the man …. robbed the store.

04.    The man …. You just met is a famous short story writer.

05.    The rumor …. We heard yesterday is not true at all.

06.    We met a woman …. way of dressing is very unusual.

07.    The tourists …. I talked to were from Thailand.

08.    The lady …. bag was stolen is our next door neighbor.

09.    The dress …. is hung over there is the newest in fashion.

10.    She is a novelist …. reputation has grown fast.


Task 2

Join each pair of sentences with a suitable relative pronoun.


01.    Those are the players. We saw them last Sunday.

02.    The man is Deddy’s father. He saved you from the danger.

03.    That is the boy. He witnessed the accident.

04.    Here is the parcel. It arrived for you a few days ago.

05.    That is the woman. Her son fell down from the ship into the sea.

06.    Can you show me the assignments ? You did them last night.

07.    I know the girl. Her father is the manager of that company.

08.    Is this the book ? You have been looking for it.

09.    Where is the girl ? She was waiting here just now.

10.    The student will be sent to Europe. He won the scholarship.


Task 3

Choose the right answer by crossing a, b, c, d or e.


01.  The man …. has left for Mecca.                                        07. Crossing Death Valley, …. temperatures reach

a.    I was telling you about him.                                                 well above 11o Fahrenheit, was a near

b.    about him I was telling you.                                                 insurmountable task for the early pioneers.

c.    who I was telling you.                                                  a. when                                    d. those

d.    about whom I was telling you.                                             b. where                           e. which

e.    whom I was telling you about him.                                       c. that








02.  That is the drawer . I keep my jewelry there                       08. T.A. Watson’s business involved building

(in that drawer). The combination of the                                   models for inventors …. had ideas but

sentences is ….                                                                       lacked the means or skills to execute them

a.    That is the drawer which I keep my jewelry there.               a. who                              d. to whom

b.    That is the drawer which I keep my jewelry.                        b. when                            e. which

c.    That is the drawer in which I keep my jewelry.                    c. whose

d.    That is the drawer where I keep my jewelry there.

e.    That is the drawer which I keep my jewelry in there09. Glaucoma, …. is often called tunnel vision, happens                                                                                           when a build up of pressure in the eye

03.  I know the man …. was stolen.                                                     gradually shrinks the field of vision.

a.    his bicycle                    d. whom his bicycle                         a. where                           d. when

b.    who is bicycle              e. whose bicycle                             b. why                              e. who

c.    whom bicycle                                                                     c. which


04.  New Orleans is a city …. older traditions can still               10. Those patients, …. were treated with a

be seen.                                                                                  Radioactive antibody.

a.    those    d. whose                                                                a. whose doctors found to have tumors

b.    that       e. where                                                                 b. whom doctors found to have tumors

c.    which                                                                                 c. which doctors found to have tumors.

                                                                                                      d. where doctors found to have tumors.

05.  The preservation of ancient sites and historical buildings      e. for whom doctors found to have tumors.

is a job …. requires a person ready to fight a long


a.    whose                          d. where

b.    which                           e. who

c.    whom


06.  Monteverdi, …. works were mainly written on

commission for private theaters of wealthy Italian

nobility, wrote his final opera in 1642.

a.    which                           d. whom

b.    who                             e. whose

c.    where




Task 1

Notice and read Yulia’s experience.


Yulia was late for school yesterday. She was late because she missed the bus. She had almost reached the bus stop when she saw the bus. She started to run so that she might catch the bust. Unfortunately, she did not catch it though she had run very fast. Yulia missed the bus so she had to walk to school. She would not have been late for school if she caught the bus.


Task 2

Answer the following questions about Yulia.


1.      The paragraph above tells us about ….

2.      Did the bus arrive before or after the moment Yulia was in the bus stop ?

3.      Why did Yulia run ?

4.      Why did Yulia not catch the bus ?

5.      Is it the only bus passing Yulia’s school ?

How do you know ?





Task 3

This sentence is taken from paragraph above !


She did not catch it though she had run very fast.


1.      How many clauses are there in the sentence ?

2.      What are they ?

3.      What word join the clauses ?

4.      Does the word “though” introduce reason, time, contrast or something else ?

5.      What is the function of though she had run very fast in the sentence ?

6.      Can the words : so, when, where, before, after, while, etc join the two clauses ?

7.      What does each of those word introduce ?



The adverb clause can function as adverb of :


1.      Time                                 : after, before, when, whenever, as, as soon as, as long as, until, till, while, since.

2.      Place                                : where, wherever

3.      Manner                             : as, as if, as though

4.      Cause/ reason                   : because, as, since

5.      Purpose/ result                 : so, so that, in order that

6.      Concession/ contrast        : though, although, even though, while, whereas

7.      Condition                         : if, unless, as long as, on condition that, providing that.


Task 4                                                                                                  Task 5

Fill in the blanks with suitable conjunction.                                       Join these sentences with suitable subordinate


01.  We did not want to be late …. we took a taxi.

02.  The near sighted man cannot see …. he puts on his glasses.              01. Mrs. Dumadi is old. Her ears are still

03.  I had to walk in the rain …. I did not have an umbrella.                         sensitive.

04.  …. it was a very cold day, they went for swimming.                         02. The students made a lot of noise. They

05.  Mr. and Mrs. Smith have lived here …. they got married.                 were scolded

06.  You must take this medicine …. you have your dinner.                     03. She will put the baby to sleep. She has

07.  You won’t pass the final exam …. you study hard.                                bathed him.

08.  The little boy follows his mother …. she goes.                                  04. I know where it is. I shall not tell them.

09.  It is still hot here …. the air conditioner works.                                 05. He lost the money. He was careless.

10.  I can go camping with you …. I have nothing to do this week.



Choose the right answer by crossing a, b, c, d or e.


01.  …. the ancient Chinese and Egyptians took                        06. I was late because I caught the wrong bus.

astronomy seriously, the Greeks were first to study                  It means that I caught the wrong bus, ….

the stars scientifically.                                                              I was late.

a.    Although                      d. When                                         a. although                        d. since

b.    Despite                        e. After                                           b. but                                e. when

c.    In spite of                                                                           c. so that






                                                                                               07. The child hid behind his mother …. he was

02.  Limestone powder is added to animal feed ….                          afraid of the dog.

animals form good strong bones.                                              a. because                        d. while

a.    in order to                    d. because                                      b. so that                          e. whenever

b.    so that                          e. whereas                                      c. when

c.    as a result of

                                                                                               08. …. She likes him very much, she always

03.  …. I see you, I give you sink.                                                   pretends to ignore him.

a.    Anytime                       d. Every time                                  a. Since                            d. Whereas

b.    Where                         e. When                                          b. Because                        e. However

c.    Whenever                                                                          c. Even though


04.  …. a reservation, it will be impossible to get                       09. A lunar eclipse occurs …. the earth passes

a hotel room this weekend because of the jazz                         between the sun and the moon causing the

festival.                                                                            moon to become dark.

a.    If you have                   d. Without you have                        a. after                              d. so that

b.    Unless you have           e. Although you have                       b. even though                  e. when

c.    Unless having                                                                     c. in order that


05.  We went by bus …. we would see more of the                  10. …. Andy seldom attends classes, he is always

country.                                                                                  one of the best students in class.

a.    in order to                    d. although                                      a. Whenever                     d. Although

b.    because                       e. when                                           b. Since                            e. If

c.    so                                                                                      c. Because




Task 1

Study the following conjunctions


These adverbs, like coordinate and correlative conjunctions, are used to connect basic sentence pattern and make compound sentences. However, unlike the coordinate conjunctions, they are grammatically a part of the sentences they introduce and could be moved to an internal position in the sentence.


1.      Augmentation/ addition :

-  Besides                      : I live too far away to visit you often; besides, you are never home.

-  Furthermore               : Television isn’t entertaining; furthermore, it is sometimes instructive.

-  Also                          : The executive dictated a letter; he also wrote some memorandums.  

-  Moreover                  : Harrison is kind; moreover, he is generous.

-  Similarly                     : His parents has talent in arts; similarly, their children have.

-  In addition                 : Smoking can be the cause of many illnesses and respiratory disorders; in addition, it may harm non smokers.

2.      Result/cause :

-  Accordingly               :  He requested an opportunity to make up the work he had missed; accordingly, his teacher gave him special help.

-  Consequently             : The road was wet and slippery; there were, consequently, many accidents.

-  Hence                        : We must meet the deadline; hence a decision is needed now.

-  Therefore                   : You have disregarded my advice; therefore, I will not help you again.

-  Thus                          : He put out the fire quickly; thus, a great disaster was avoided.

-  As a result                 : Harrison worked hard all year; as a result, he was promoted.

-  In consequence          : The plane was late arriving in Chicago; in consequence, I missed my connection.


3.      Contrast :

-  However                   : Orna moved to New York; however, her mother stayed in Boston.

-  Instead                      : They had no fish, I ordered chicken, instead.

-  Nevertheless              : Mr. Niculescu was invalid all his life; nevertheless, he had an active career.

-  Still                            : He has treated you badly; still, he’s your brother and you ought to help him.

4.      Time sequence :

-  Afterwards                : He made ten mistakes on his last paper; afterwards, he was more careful.

-  Meanwhile                 : I held the dog; meanwhile, my friend washed it.

-  Then                          : I will study medicine for six years; then, I will be a doctor.

-  Henceforth                 : The secretary lost the minutes of the meeting; henceforth, she will be more careful.


5.      Alternative :

-  Otherwise                  : The leaders settled the argument; otherwise, there would have been war.


Task 2

Combine the following pairs of sentences with conjunctive adverbs.


01.  I studied very hard. I failed the examination.

02.  I don’t want to go to the show. I don’t have time.

03.  We got there early. The seats were all taken.

04.  Harrison is intelligent. He is well educated.

05.  I did a rough outline. I wrote the report.

06.  They never answer my letters. I don’t like to write them anymore.

07.  They must leave a little earlier. They will miss the train.

08.  Mr. Nicullescu had little money. He enjoyed life.

09.  The weather report said rain. I put on a raincoat and boots.

10.  My neighbors are nosy. They are gossips.


Task 3

Choose the right answer by crossing a, b, c, d or e.


01.  Come early to the show; …., we can get front                   06. I have to study tonight; …., I’d go with you.

seats.                                                                                      a. moreover                      d. furthermore

a.    however                       d. nevertheless                                b. otherwise                      e. however

b.    after all                         e. therefore                                     c. furthermore

c.    furthermore

                                                                                               07. Your resume was incomplete; …., your

02.  The murder suspects wanted to tell the police                            application was rejected.

the truth; …., they were afraid.                                                a. then                              d. all the same

a.    so                                d. moreover                                    b. in addition                     e. after all

b.    nevertheless                 e. therefore                                     c. accordingly

c.    otherwise

                                                                                               08. Too little sleep can impair your health; ….,

03.  My uncle doesn’t earn much; …., he can send his                     to much sleep is symptom of a disorder.

children to college.                                                                  a. nevertheless                  d. consequently

a.    however                       d. consequently                               b. moreover                      e. so

b.    in addition                    e. accordingly                                 c. otherwise

c.    therefore

                                                                                               09. Large number of buffalo have been killed by

04.  Our school library needs to add more books to its                    hunters; …., they are almost extinct.

collection; …., I am collecting donations to buy                        a. however                        d. nevertheless

new books.                                                                             b. in addition                     e. consequently

a.    however                       d. therefore                                     c. furthermore

b.    nevertheless                 e. otherwise

c.    in addition                                                                   10. The government is planning to liquidate 

                                                                                                      several banks soon; …., very few people

05.  Smoking can be the cause of many illnesses and                        know which ones they are.

respitory disorders; …. it may harm non-smokers.                   a. in addition                     d. otherwise

a.       consequently               d. nevertheless                                b. moreover                      e. accordingly

b.      however                     e. otherwise                                    c. however

c.       in addition



Task 1

Study the following dialogue carefully, then answer the questions.


Linda      : “Good morning, Win, how are you ?”

Winda    : “I’m fine, thank you.”

Linda      : “How is your mother ?”

Winda    : “Not too well, I’m afraid. She got a bit cold.”

Linda      : “What are you going to do then ?”                          

Winda    : “I don’t know what I’m going to do.”

Linda      : “Did you take her to the hospital ?”

Winda    : “Not yet, but my sister asked if I took her to the hospital.

Linda      : “I think that you should take her to hospital.”

Winda    : “What you say is quite right.”




01.  How is Winda ?

02.  How is Winda’s mother ?

03.  What is Winda going to do ?

04.  What did her sister ask ?

05.  What does Linda think ?

06.  What does Winda reply ?


Task 2

Look at the underlined words, and answer the questions that follow !


a. I don’t know what I’m going to do.

b. Her sister asked if she took her to hospital.

c. I think that you should take her to hospital.

d. What you say is quite right.


01.  Do the underlined words have a subject and a predicate ?

02.  Can the underlined words stand themselves without the other sentence ?

03.  Don’t you call them a clause ?

04.  What do the underlined words in the sentence a, b, and c stand as, a subject, an object or a complement ?

05.  What do the underlined words in the sentence d stand as, a subject, an object or a complement ?

06.  What kind of clause the underlined words above, a noun clause or an adjective clause ?




01.  A clause is a group of related words that has a subject and a predicate.

02.  A noun  clause is a clause which stands as a noun. It can be :

a.      Subject

What they are talking about is something important.

b.     Object

I have to see what they are going to show.

c.      Complement

It’s not what I want to see.







Task 3

Change the questions in the parentheses into noun clause.


Example : (Where are you going ?) Tell me….

Tell me where you are going.


01.  (What did she say ?) …. wasn’t true.

02.  (When are they coming ?) Do you know …. ?

03.  (How much does it cost ?) I can’t remember ….

04.  (Which one does he want ?) Let’s ask him ….

05.  (Who is coming to the party ?) I don’t know ….

06.  (Why did they leave the country ?) …. is a secret.

07.  (What are we doing in class ?) …. is easy.

08.  (Where did she go ?) …. is none of your business.

09.  (How many letters are there in the English alphabet ?) I don’t remember ….

10.  (What did the police find inside ?) …. was a crying baby.


Task 4

Choose the right answer by crossing a, b, c, d or e.


01.  I shall ask them ….                                                           06. I wonder ….

a.      who is the lady in the kitchen                                              a. how much cost these shoes

b.     who the lady is in the kitchen                                              b. how much do these shoes cost

c.      who in the kitchen is the lady                                              c. how much these shoes do cost

d.     who the lady in the kitchen is                                              d. how much these shoes cost

e.      who in the kitchen the lady is                                              e. how much are these shoes cost


02.  Helen didn’t mention ….                                                   07. Tina : Did you leave your dictionary at the library.

a.        what countries has she visited                                             Anti : What do you wonder ?

b.        what countries she has visited                                             Tina : I wonder …. your dictionary at the library.

c.        what countries she visits                                                     a. if you left                       d. where you left

d.        what countries she had visited                                            b. what you left                 e. when you left

e.        what countries had she visited                                            c. why you left


03.  Did she remember …. ?                                                    08. Tourist : Do you know …. ?

a.      when the boy had arrived                                                   Tono   : It’s about 1 kilometer from here.

b.     when had the boy arrived                                                   a. how far is it to your hometown

c.      when the boy arrives                                                          b. how far to your hometown it is

d.     when the boy has arrived                                                   c. how far it is to your hometown

e.      when has the boy arrived                                                   d. it is how far to your hometown

                                                                                                      e. it is your hometown how far

04.  I didn’t hear …. because there was too much noise

where I was sitting.                                                           09. Indah : What have the book written about ?

a.      what said                     d. what was he saying                     Indri : The book have written about ….

b.     what he said                e. what he says                               a. how one can become a better reader.

c.      what did he say                                                                  b. how can one become a better reader.

                                                                                                      c. how can a better reader become one.

                                                                                                      d. how a better reader can become one.

05.  Do you know …. ?                                                                  e. how one can a better reader become.

a.      what time the movie starts

b.     what time starts the movie                                           10. …. is a mystery to me.      

c.      what time does the movie start                                           a. Why did the class elect John chairman

d.     the movie starts what time                                                  b. Why did chairman elect John the class

e.      what the movie starts time                                                  c. Why the class elected John chairman

                                                                                                      d. Why John elected the class chairman

                                                                                                      e. Why did John elect the class chairman














Task 1

Practice these dialogue. Pay attention to the italic words.


1. A        : Do you think the concept gotong royong originated in urban areas ?

B       : No, I don’t think so.

A       : Why ?

B       : Well, it’s because gotong royong was historically rooted in the tradition of rural areas community.


2. A        : Why do you think the urban areas like Jakarta are flooded by people from the rural areas ?

B       : Well, I think thousands have migrated to this city  because of  better living standards. I mean they dream of having a better livelihood.

Task 2

Study the use of because and because of in the two dialogues above. Answer these questions !


1.      Why does B use because and because of to introduce the reasons ?

2.      Does because have the same function as because of ?

3.      What are they ?


Task 3

Fill in the blanks with the suitable words from the box.









Because and because of are (1) …. in meaning but they’re not interchangeable. “Because” is a (2) …. It is used before a (3) …. with the subject and verb. While “because of” is a (4) …. It is used before a (5) …. or pronoun.


Task 4

Supply either because or because of as appropriate.


01.  We could not walk farther …. being tired.

02.  …. he had nothing to do, he went to the theatre.

03.  Andi is always one of the best students …. always attending classes.

04.  We study sentences …. they are all important in English.

05.  …. having no key, you will have to come in early.


Task 5

Match the sentences beginning in column A with their endings in column B. Use because or because of.






the rain

a. We wanted to learn English


It had not budded

b. I could feel the propeller turning.


You admired my ostriches

c. The wiring is faulty


She had to wake herself

d. I’m sending you some feathers


We went to London.

e. needing money


The usherette was very cross

f. The teacher punished him


The cabin was near the stern

g. They sawed off the branch.


running behind the skirting

h. We arrived late


He didn’t do his homework

i. having no alarm clock


They sold their car

j. I shall stay in


Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning.

Use the word(s) in brackets in your sentences.


Example: Because he is very busy, he seldom attends the party. (because of)

Because of being very busy, he seldom attends the party.


01.  Because he had already spent a lot of money, he decided not to buy the watch. (because of)

02.  Because of their poverty, they could not send their children to school. (because)

03.  She doesn’t want to borrow that book because she has read it. (due to)

04.  I didn’t have a chance to talk to him at the airport yesterday because he was in hurry. (owing to)

05.  On account of not knowing her arrival, he didn’t welcome her. (because)




Task 1

Study this example situation!


Last year Eddy and Rona spent their holiday by the sea. It rained a lot but they enjoyed themselves.

You can also say:

Although it rained a lot they enjoyed themselves.

Or In spite of} the rain, they enjoyed themselves.



Task 2

Study the use of although and in spite of/ despite in the sentences above.

Answer these questions.


1.      Why do the above sentences use although/ though/ even though and in spite of/ despite to introduce contrasts?

2.      Does although/ though/ even though have the same function as in spite of/ despite?


Task 3

Fill in the blanks with the suitable words from the box.









Although/ Though/ Even though and in spite of/ despite are (1) …. in meaning but they’re not interchangeable. “Although/ Though/ Even though” is a (2) …. It is used before a (3) …. with the subject and verb. While “In spite of/ Despite” is a (4) …. It is used before a (5) …. or pronoun.


Task 4

Complete these sentences with although/ though/ even though or in spite of / despite.


01.  …. being over seventy, he is fit and strong.

02.  We can’t go home …. we have managed to do it.

03.  I could not catch up with him …. running very fast.

04.  They studied hard …. they were very tired.

05.  …. having trained very hard, our team failed to be a champion.









Task 5

Complete these sentences. Each time use although/ though/ even though or in spite of/ despite a sentence from the box.


- enjoying radio

- you may not agree

- It cost me extra effort

- needing more time than others

- I had a slight handicap

- not earning much


01.  he always sends money to his mother despite not earning much.

02.  …. I was an ambitious student.

03.  I always passed the tests ….

04.  I wanted to excel in everything ….

05.  You like to see program on TV ….

06.  …. I must make my report today.


Task 6

Read these sentences and then write a new sentence with the same meaning.

Use the word(s) in brackets in your sentences.


Example : I couldn’t sleep although I was tired. (despite)

I couldn’t sleep despite being tired/ my tiredness.


01.  Although John is only sixteen, he has already entered a University. (despite)

02.  In spite of having tried to avoid Susan, I suddenly looked up from reading, and there she was. (even though)

03.  Despite he dislike the movies, she went with her husband to please him. (though)

04.  We couldn’t meet the deadline although we worked day and night. (in spite of)

05.  The ship managed to reach port despite being badly  damaged. (although)


Tidak ada komentar:

Posting Komentar