Jumat, 16 Januari 2009

MATERI

PAST TENSE

 


SIMPLE PAST

 

Task 1

Situational Conversation

Practise the dialogue!

 

Ryan     : Hello, Cindy, I saw you in the market yesterday.

Cindy    : Hi. I didn’t see you, Ryan. What did you buy?

Ryan     : I bought a new shirt, and you?

Cindy    : I wanted to buy a new school bag.

Ryan     : Did you get the school bag you wanted?

Cindy    : I tried five shops, but I didn’t find a good one.

 

Task 2

Read the dialogue and then answer the following questions.

 

1.        Who did Ryan see in the market yesterday?

2.        Did Cindy see him?

3.        What did Ryan ask Cindy about the school bag?

 

Task 3

Study the following sentences!

 

1.        Ryan saw Cindy in the market yesterday.

2.        Cindy didn’t see him.

3.        Did you get the school bag you wanted?

 

a.        What is the pattern of the sentence 1?

b.       What is the pattern of the sentence 2?

c.        What is the pattern of the sentence 3?

 

SUMMARY

 

1.        Pola Kalimat Simple Past Tense yaitu :

a.     S +  V2 + O                        (+)     

b.    S +  did + not + V1 + O   (-)

c.     Did + S + V1 + O ?           (?)

d.    S + (was, were) + 

e.     S + (was’ were) + not + …

f.      (Was, Were) + S + …?

     

Example :     

He prepared his lesson well.

They prepared their lesson well.

He did not prepare his lesson well.

They did not prepare their lesson well.

Did he prepare his lesson well?

Did they prepare their lesson well?

 

2.        Simple Past Tense digunakan untuk :

a.        menyatakan suatu perbuatan yang sudah selesai di waktu lampau pada waktu yang tertentu.

Karena itu digunakan untuk :

1.        Perbuatan di masa lampau apabila waktunya ditentukan :

Example :   I met him yesterday.

 

2.        Apabila waktunya ditanyakan.

Example : - When did you meet him?

3.        Apabila secara jelas perbuatan itu terjadi pada waktu tertentu, meskipun tidak disebutkan.

Example : 

Ø    The train was ten minutes late.

Ø    How did you get your present job?

Ø    I bought this car in Bandung.

 

b.       menyatakan suatu parbuatan yang waktunya tidak disebutkan, tetapi kejadian itu sudah berakhir pada saat sekarang ini atau tidak ada hubungannya dengan waktu sekarang.

 

Example : 

Ø    He worked in that bank for four years. (Now he doesn’t work in that bank anymore)

Ø    She lived in Bandung for a long time (But he moves to another place now.)

 

3.        Simple Past Tense ditandai dengan keterangan waktu :

this morning; yesterday; a week ago; last month; just now;  in 2003;  on Monday

 

Task 4

Put the verbs into the Past Tense.

 

1.         He (borrow) my pen this morning.

2.        The students (talk) about the first lesson on Monday.

3.        She (smile) when she saw me.

4.        Mr. and Mrs. Santosa (practice) English together last night.

5.        I was sick; I (need) a doctor.

6.        Mother (count) the money and put it in her bag.

7.        Mary (drop) her pencil, and John (stop) to pick it up for her.

8.        The children sang and (clap) their hands.

9.        The child (cry) all night last night.

10.    Tom (carry) the bag for his mother.

11.    I (meet) Dr. Slamet this morning. We (shake) hands.

12.    He (take) his books from the desk and (leave the classroom.

13.    We (get) some cakes at the market and (eat) them at home.

14.    She (make) a new dress and (wear) it last Sunday.

15.    The students (hear) the bell and (go) into the classroom.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 5

Write the story into Past Tense.

 

THE BLAKE’S TRIP TO INDONESIA

 

The Blake family (come) from New York to Indonesia by plane. They (leave) New York on Tuesday evening, and the next morning they (arrive) in London. Mrs. Blake’s parents, Mr. and Mrs. Mills, live near London, and they (meet) the Blakes at the airport.

The Blakes (spend) a very happy week with the Mills family. Soon the week (be) over, and the Blakes (leave) London for Rome. From there they (take) a Garuda plane for Jakarta, and they (arrive) at Kemayoran Airport on Thursday evening. It was a long trip, but all of the family (enjoy) it

 

PAST CONTINUOUS

 

Task 1

Study the following dialogue and answer the questions that follow!!

 

Farel     : Good morning, Sinta. Did you see Terry?

Sinta    : Terry? Yes, I did. She was talking to Mr. Gunawan when I entered the office just now.

Farel     : Was she? I saw her several minutes ago. She was going into the classroom then. Do you think she is still in the office?

Sinta    : Look, she was leaving the office.

Farel     : Well, I have to see her. I want to borrow her Biology book.

 

1.         What was Terry doing when Sinta entered the office?

2.         What was Terry doing when Farel saw her several minutes ago?

3.         Why does Farel want to see Gina?

 

Task 2

Study the following sentences and then answer the questions that follow.

 

1.         Terry was talking to Mr. Gunawan when Sinta entered the office.

2.         Terry was going into the classroom when Farel saw her several minutes ago.

  1. What is the pattern of the sentences above?
  2. When do we use these patterns?

 

THE USE OF PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE

 

1.         Untuk menyatakan aktifitas yang sedang terjadi pada waktu lampau.

Example : 

She was singing.

She was not singing.

Was she singing?

 

2.         Untuk menyatakan kejadian yang sedang terjadi pada waktu lampau pada saat kejadian lain terjadi. Umummnya disertai anak kalimat yang biasanya dengan kata sambung (conjunction) when, while atau as.

Task 3

Supply the correct form of the verbs in the bracket.

 

1.         He (sit) on the bank fishing when he (see) a man’s hat floating down the river.

2.         As the goalkeeper (run) forward to seize the ball a bottle (strike) him on the shoulder.

3.         Everyone (read) quietly when suddenly the door (burst) open and a complete stranger (rush) in.

4.         They (build) that bridge when I (be) here last year.

5.         A traffic warden just (stick) a parking ticket to my windscreen when I (come) back to the car.

6.         While I (wonder) whether to buy the dress or not, someone else (come) and (buy) it

7.         My dog (attack) the postman as he (put) the letters into the letter box.

8.         I just (open) the letter when the wind (blow) it out of my hand.

9.         The burglar (open) the safe when he (hear) footsteps.

10.      You looked very busy when I (see) you last night. What you (do)?

11.      He (clean) his gun when it accidentally (go) off and (kill) him

12.      He (not allow us to go out in the boat yesterday as a strong wind (blow).

13.      As I (cross) the road I (step) on a banana skin and (fall) heavily.

14.      I still (lie) on the road when I (see) a lorry approaching.

15.      When he (mend) the fuse he (get) a very bad shock.

 

Task 4

Write the story in the Past Tense or the Past Progressive Tense.

 

Peter and Ann (decide) to redecorate their sitting-room themselves. They (choose) cream paint for the woodwork and apricot for the walls. When John (look) in to see how they (get) on, and (mix) the paint, and Peter (wash) down the walls. They (be) glad to see John and (ask) if he (do) anything special that day. He hastily (reply) he (go) to the theatre and (go) away at once, because he (know) they (look) for someone to help them.

They (begin) painting, but (find) the walls (be) too wet. While they (wait) for walls to dry, Ann (remember) she (have) a phone call to make. Peter (start) painting while she (telephone), and (do) a whole wall before Ann (come) back. He (grumble) that she always (telephone). Ann (retort) that Peter always (complain)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PAST PERFECT

 

Task 1

Study this example of situation !

 

Yesterday morning Mary got up and looked out of the window. The sun was shining but the ground was very wet. It had rained. It wasn’t raining when Mary looked out of the window; the sun was shining. But it had rained. That’s why the ground was wet.

 

Answer these questions !

 

1.        What did Mary do when she got up yesterday morning?

2.        Was the sun shining brightly that day?

3.        How was the ground?

4.        What had happened the night before?

 

Task 2

Study the following sentence and answer the questions that follow !

 

It had rained.

 

1.        What is the pattern of the sentence above?

2.        When is this tense used?

 

Task 3

Study the following summary.

 

1.        Use (Penggunaan)

Past Perfect digunakan untuk menggambarkan suatu kejadian yang telah selesai pada waktu lampau dan terjadi sebelum kejadian lain pada masa lampau.

2.        Past Perfect biasanya digunakan dengan adverb of time (keterangan waktu) :

already, just, yet, ever, never, scarcely, barely, no sooner.

Example :  

a.     He had just got the letter when I came.

b.    She had never done it before he came here.

c.     Had you ever seen the animal when you were there?

3.        Past Perfect biasanya terjadi bersama-bersama dengan Simple Past yang mengungkapkan kejadian berikutnya (kemudian)

 

After + S + had + V-3, S + V-2

Before + S + V-2, S + had + V-3

 


When                          

By the time                          S + had + V-3, S + V-2

Because                               S + V-2, S + had + V-3

Although

 


Task 4

Supply the correct form of the verbs in the parentheses

 

01.    We (just sit) down to dinner when a fire (break out) in the kitchen.

02.    I (hear) many things about this country before I (come) here.

03.    When she (finish) her work, she (go) to the movies.

04.    The children (fight for) some time before their mother (separate) them.

05.    They (be married) for five years before any friction (arise) between them.

06.    They (plan) for a long time to move to the suburbs before they (stay) there.

07.    When the doorbell (ring), we (just sit) down to dinner.

08.    Because she (not reported) the theft immediately, the police (be) unable to help her.

09.    Before he (be) elected to be a president, he (be) a member of Congress for many years.

10.    He (wonder) whether he (leave) his wallet at home.

 

Task 5

Choose the correct answer!

 

1.     I saw Hasan this morning when I … for a bus.

a.     wait                          d. was waiting

b.    am waiting                e. have been waiting

c.     had waited

 

2.     Before the speaker finished his speech, most of the audience …

a.  left                                     d. were leaving

b.  had left                              e. have left

c.   leave

 

3.     When he first phoned, I … informed by the police.

a.     was already been      d. have already been

b.    will be                       e. had already been

c.     would be

 

4.     I … down the street when it began to rain.

a.     am walking               d. would walk

b.    was walking              e. have been walking

c.     have walked

 

5.     ‘Why were you absent from the English class?’

‘Because I … my homework.’

a.     don’t do                             d. am not doing

b.    won’t do                            e. hadn’t done

c.     haven’t done

 

6.     When the farmers were working in the field, they found the ancient tool. Means:

a.     The farmers worked in the field, they found the ancient tool.

b.    Before the farmers worked in the field, they found the ancient tool.

c.     The farmers found the ancient tool after they had worked in the fields.

d.    At the time the farmers were working in the field, they found the ancient tool.

e.     When the farmers worked in the field, they had found the ancient tool.

 

7.     The police … for the robber for two years before they caught him.

a.     had been looking               d. had to be looked

b.    have been looking for         e. were looking

c.     were being looked

 

 

 

8.     The car … ten times before it finally landed on its roof.

a.     flipped                               d. had flipped

b.    has flipped                         e. would flip

c.     has been flipping

 

9.     ‘Did you meet Frank yesterday?’

‘No, I didn’t have the chance because he … for London.”

a.     has left                      d. had been leaving

b.    was leaving               e. left

c.     had left

 

10.      Ratu … , but when she … she stopped.

a.     had been dancing; saw

b.    danced; was seeing

c.     has been dancing; has seen

d.    was dancing; saw

e.     was dancing; had seen

 

 

ADVERBIAL CLAUSE

 

Task 1

Notice and read Yulia’s experience.

 

Yulia was late for school yesterday. She was late because she missed the bus. She had almost reached the bus stop when she saw the bus. She started to run so that she might catch the bust. Unfortunately, she did not catch it though she had run very fast. Yulia missed the bus so she had to walk to school. She would not have been late for school if she caught the bus.

 

Task 2

Answer the following questions about Yulia.

 

1.       The paragraph above tells us about ….

2.       Did the bus arrive before or after the moment Yulia was in the bus stop ?

3.       Why did Yulia run ?

4.       Why did Yulia not catch the bus ?

5.       Is it the only bus passing Yulia’s school ?

How do you know ?

 

Task 3

This sentence is taken from paragraph above !

 

She did not catch it though she had run very fast.

 

1.       How many clauses are there in the sentence?

2.       What are they?

3.       What words join the clauses?

4.       Does the word “though” introduce reason, time, contrast or something else?

5.       What is the function of though she had run very fast in the sentence?

6.       Can the words: so, when, where, before, after, while, etc join the two clauses?

7.       What does each of those words introduce?

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

The adverb clause can function as adverb of :

 

1.     Time                        : after, before, when, whenever, as, as soon as, as long as, until, till, while, since.

2.     Place                        : where, wherever

3.     Manner                    : as, as if, as though

4.     Cause/ reason           : because, as, since

5.     Purpose/ result          : so, so that, in order that

6.      Concession/ contrast : though, although, even though, while, whereas

7.     Condition                   : if, unless, as long as, on condition that, providing that.

 

Task 4                                                                                                    Task 5

Fill in the blanks with suitable conjunction.                                                               Join these sentences with suitable subordinate

                                                                                                             conjunction.

1.       We did not want to be late … we took a taxi.

2.       The near sighted man cannot see … he puts on his glasses.   

3.       I had to walk in the rain … I did not have an umbrella.

4.       … it was a very cold day, they went for swimming.

5.       Mr. and Mrs. Smith have lived here … they got married.  

6.       You must take this medicine … you have your dinner.     

7.       You won’t pass the final exam … you study hard.            

8.       The little boy follows his mother … she goes.

9.       It is still hot here … the air conditioner works.

10.    I can go camping with you … I have nothing to do this week.

 

Task 5

Fill in the blanks with suitable conjunction.                                                               Join these sentences with suitable subordinate

                                                                                                             conjunction.

1.     Mrs. Dumadi is old. Her ears are still sensitive.

2.     The students made a lot of noise. They were scolded

3.     She will put the baby to sleep. She has bathed him.

4.     I know where it is. I shall not tell them.

5.     He lost the money. He was careless.

6.     We were tired. We sat down beside the stream

7.     I’ll stay. Tom gets back.

8.     I don’t know the area. I’ll have to buy a map.

9.     He rarely goes to school regularly. He is able to get good mark in his test.

10.  The dog will never stop barking. The dog sees a stranger.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Task 1

Practise the dialogue!

 

Lidya    :  Have you done your homework?

Teddy   :  The Geography homework? Yes, I have. I did it last night.

Have you finished yours?

Lidya    :  No, I haven’t. I’ve done exercise A and B, but I haven’t finished exercise C yet. I am going to do it this evening. Is it easy?

Teddy   :  Well, not too difficult.

 

Task 2

Read the dialogue and then answer the following questions.

 

1.        What has Teddy done?

2.        What did Teddy ask about Lidya’s homework?

3.        Has Lidya finished done her homework?

 

Task 3

Study the following sentences!

 

1.        Teddy has finished his Geography homework.

2.        Have you finished yours?

3.        No, She has not finished her Geography homework.

 

a.        What is the pattern of the sentence 1?

b.       What is the pattern of the sentence 2?

c.        What is the pattern of the sentence 3?

 

SUMMARY

 

1.        Pola Kalimat Present Perfect Tense yaitu :

a.        S +  have + V3 + O (+)                                   

               has

b.       S +  have + not + V3 + O (-)

               has

c.        Have + S + V3 + O (?)

Has

 

They                                                    they                           

We             have + V3                                                   we

I                have + not + V3      Have      I        +  V3

You                                                     you

 


He                                                       he

She           has + V3               Has        she   + V3

It              has + not + V3                                      it

 

 

Example :  He has prepared his lesson well.

They have prepared their lesson well.

He has not prepared his lesson well.

They have not prepared their lesson well.

Has he prepared his lesson well?

Have they prepared their lesson well?

 

2.        Present Perfect Tense digunakan untuk :

a.        menyatakan suatu tindakan yang dimulai pada waktu lampau dan selesai pada waktu sekarang (ketika berbicara)

Example :  - This room has not been cleaned for months. (but today We clean it.)

-   I haven’t seen you for ages. (However, I see you)

 

b.       menyatakan perbuatan yang terjadi di waktu lampau tetapi masih mempunyai hubungan dengan waktu sekarang (terus berlangsung sampai sekarang), yaitu aktivitas itu dapat diulangi pada waktu sekarang.

Example :  - I have seen wolves in that forest.

-   John Smith has written a number of short stories

 

c.        menyatakan perbuatan yang baru saja dilakukan tetapi waktunya tidak disebutkan karena tidak perlu.

Example :     - I have read the instructions but I don’t understand them.

-    Have you had breakfast?

 

3.         Present Perfect Tense ditandai dengan keterangan waktu :

a.       Since ( sejak) digunakan untuk manandai waktu dimulainya suatu tindakan. (since x)

Example :  - She has lived in London since October.

-   I have not gone home since April.

 

b.       for (selama) digunakan untuk menandai lamanya suatu kejadian. (for                )

Example :  - She has lived here for three months.

-       We have not gone home for six months.

 

c.        just (baru saja) digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian yang baru saja terjadi.

Example :    - I have just met my friend in the corridor.

-    He has just begun English.

 

d.       already (telah) digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian yang telah terjadi. (+ dan ?)

Example : - Have you already had breakfast?

-   She has given her old dresses to the poor already.

-   She has already given her old dresses to the poor.

 

e.       yet (belum) digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian yang belum terjadi. ( - dan ?)

Example :  - They haven’t found the boy yet.

-   Haven’t you returned my book yet?

 

f.         lately, recently (baru-baru ini) digunakan untuk menunjukan suatu kejadian yang baru-baru ini terjadi.

Example :  - I have been very busy recently.

-   She has visited her grandmother lately.

 

g.       up to now (hingga kini); all morning (sepanjang pagi); so far (sejauh ini); up to the present (hingga kini); all this year (sepanjang tahun ini).

Task 4

Put the verbs into the Present Perfect Tense.

 

1.         He (not smoke) for several weeks.

2.        She (fall) off her bicycle many times.

3.        He (be) a member of House of Representatives for many years.

4.        There (be) many accidents on that road recently.

5.        I (have) this toothache since yesterday.

6.        His business (prosper) so far.

7.        Up to now we (never have) any trouble with our refrigerator.

8.        I (not yet see) that play.

9.        He (be) seriously ill for the past few days.

10.    It (rain) here since this morning?

 

Task 5

Change the following sentences into negative and interrogative.

 

1.         She has said the same things for an hour.

2.         They have worked on that bridge all year long.

3.         The sick boy has stayed in bed as the doctor ordered.

4.         All day long I have waited for the telegram to arrive.

5.         He has worked for the same company for 25 years.

 

Task 6

Put the verbs into the Simple Present, Present Progressive, or Present Perfect Tense.

 

1.         We (do) this unit for a week, and we (do) it now.

2.        The children (play) for more than an hour, and they still (play) now.

3.        Rano and Yanti (be) in the same class for three years, and they (be) still in the same class.

4.        I (use) this pen for two months, but it (be) still new.

5.        We (study) English for three years, and we still (study) it now.

6.        He (work) for three hours, and he (be) still busy.

7.        The Borobudur (stand) for hundreds of years, and it still (stand) now.

8.        The old man (be) ill for two months, and he (be) still in hospital.

9.        Ibu Sri (teach) history for ten years, and she still (teach) history.

10.    Pak Makmur (play) chess for twenty years, and he still (play) once a week.

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